recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights
of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice
and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest
importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act
or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or
international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier
penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal
offence was committed.
Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to
return to his country.
This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising
from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles
of the United Nations.
No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the
right to change his nationality.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is
entitled to protection by society and the State.
No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country,
directly or through freely chosen representatives.
as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled
to realization, through national effort and international co-operation
and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of
the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity
and the free development of his personality.
Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just
and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.(2)
Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal
work.(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration
ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity,
and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.(4)
Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection
of his interests.
has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of
working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health
and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing,
housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right
to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood,
old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least
in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be
compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally
available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the
basis of merit.
Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the
community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and
is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and
freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full
development of his personality is possible.(2) In the exercise of his
rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations
as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition
and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just
requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic
society.(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary
to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.